Ozone Therapy Conclusions by Professor Velio Bocci – 2009

Ozone. A New Medical Drug 2nd Edition

Ozone Applications

Major Ozone Autohemotherapy – A volume of blood is drawn from an arm vein, exposed to Oxygen/Ozone for at least 5 minutes with gentle mixing and re-infused either IV (major AHT) or Intramuscular (IM) (minor AHT).

This procedure may only be performed by those that have the necessary qualifications, namely Doctors or Nurses.

Minor Autohemotherapy – A volume of blood is drawn and via a two-way stopcock, Oxygen/Ozone is added to the blood. This is mixed very vigorously and foam is formed. This is then injected back into the buttocks in one location only. This can be done with multiple injections and repeated 2 – 3 times weekly.

Bio-oxidative Therapy with Hydrogen Peroxide dissolved in the Isotonic Glucose or Saline Solution – “Now I must strongly recommend to avoid the use of Ozonated saline owing to inherent toxicity or/and doubtful pharmacologic activity” V Bocci

Rectal Insufflation of Oxygen-Ozone (RI) – RI should be done after defecation or after an enema, when the rectal ampulla is empty. Prof Bocci has stated that this kind of therapy can be done for 20-30 minutes at a time as the body can expel the gas. This type of treatment must be done very slowly and it is something that people can do on themselves at home.

Quasi-Total Body Exposure to Oxygen-Ozone (BOEX) or Hyperthermia Ozone Therapy –

Is ozone as toxic for the skin as it is for the respiratory mucosa?

“Both Ozone treatment and UV-irradiation of epidermal layers of murine and human skin cause peroxidation and depletion of vitamins C and E. It has also been shown that these oxidizing agents, hence Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Lipid Oxidation Products (LOP) activate Nuclear factor Kappa B (NFKB) and activator protein 1, but that alpha-lipoic acid, n-acetyl-cysteine, Thioredoxin and Selenium can inhibit the activation to a large extent and induce adaptive protection, such as over-expression of Manganese-superoxide dismutase and Glutathione peroxidise as a salutary response to oxidative damage.

It is clear that the skin has a multiform antioxidant defence system, far more potent than that present in Respiratory tract lining fluids and that it cannot be overwhelmed provided the attack by ozone or UV irradiation is not too harsh. These findings lend support to the empirical observation that during topical ozone therapy of necrotic ulcers, we have never noticed damage to normal skin. Moreover, during balneotherapy with slightly Ozonated water, no local or generalized untoward effects have been reported.

Are there anatomical-physiological reasons for the relative tolerance of skin to ozone?

Yes, owing to the structure of the skin with the epidermis, the derma and the disposition of the vascular system. The most external layer is the stratum corneum, which is a compressed and tough layer. This “dead layer” is more or less covered by a very dynamic film, containing some proteins, ions, lipids and water, due to the secretion of the eccrine glands. The layers of lipids, produced by sebaceous glands, consists of unusual oily material. This represents the first line of defence against ozone and UV rays. Progressing towards the dermis, there are stratum granulosum, the stratum Malpighi and the proliferating basil layer. The dermis and the subcutaneous tissue contain a very flexible vascular system with a heat exchanger, represented by capillaries and mainly by the venous plexus associates with the opening of arteriovenous shunts. It is able to accommodate up to 30% of the cardiac output so that heat transfer through the skin can increase up to eightfold from a state of total vasoconstriction to extreme vasodilation.

When the skin is exposed to Oxygen-Ozone, do these gases penetrate all the cell layers to reach the dermis and enter the capillaries?

It has been said that Ozone reaches the blood circulation and has a cleansing effect, with the elimination of viruses and toxins. Yet this claim propagated by quacks is not correct and it has only commercial purposes. Only Oxygen and carbon dioxide can move easily through cell membranes. HOWEVER, owing to its dipolar moment and high solubility, ozone dissolves in the superficial water film and reacts immediately with polyunsaturated fatty acids of the sebum, generating reactive Oxygen species, hence H2O2 and an array of Lipid Oxidation products . Therefore it is more likely that ozone does not even reach the phospholipids of the outer corneocytes. However the generated ROS and LOP’s can be partly absorbed and pass through the epidermis, derma and capillary wall to enter both the lymphatic system and the blood stream. Obviously hydrogen peroxide and other ROS have a very short half life and will be quickly reduced